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These can be identified by considering: the factors which differentiate between the public or private nature of goods and services; (ii) the distinction between the provision and production of such goods and services; and (iii) the extent to which decentralized structures are potentially supportive of such changes in roles. Public Goods and Services Neither the economics literature nor the public finance literature are consistent in specifying the attributes that differentiate public and private goods and services.

A more fruitful approach relates concern for decentralization issues to current thinking about the institutional requirements for achieving economic and other objectives. This Chapter starts with a description of objectives most often advocated for programs of decentralization, discusses the linkages between decentralization and economic policy objectives, and concludes with a summary analysis of resistance to change. Decentralization Objectives This section identifies those objectives most often advanced as justification for decentralization.

181 Lamboray and Elmendorf, Combatting AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Africa: A Review of the World Bank's Agenda for Action No. 184 Spurling, Pee, Mkamanga, and Nkwanyana, Agricultural Research in Southern Africa: A Framework for Action Page v Foreword This paper summarizes experience with alternative decentralization arrangements and suggests a new analytical framework for assessing the impact of such arrangements on the performance of economic development programs and projects.

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