By Alexander M. McKinney
This atlas provides common imaging diversifications of the mind, cranium, and craniocervical vasculature. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) have complex dramatically some time past 10 years, rather in regard to new ideas and 3D imaging. one of many significant difficulties skilled through radiologists and clinicians is the translation of ordinary versions compared with the abnormalities that the editions mimic. via an intensive selection of pictures, this booklet deals a spectrum of appearances for every version with accompanying 3D imaging for affirmation; explores universal artifacts on MR and CT that simulate disorder; discusses every one variation by way of the appropriate anatomy; and offers comparability instances for the aim of distinguishing basic findings from abnormalities. It comprises either universal versions in addition to newly pointed out versions which are visualized by way of lately constructed concepts akin to diffusion-weighted imaging and multidetector/multislice CT. The booklet additionally highlights basic imaging variations in pediatric instances.
Atlas of standard Imaging adaptations of the mind, cranium, and Craniocervical Vasculature is a useful source for neuroradiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and radiologists in reading the commonest and identifiable variations and utilizing the easiest how you can classify them expediently.
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Additional info for Atlas of Normal Imaging Variations of the Brain, Skull, and Craniocervical Vasculature
Note a cerebellar hemisphere (−) at the midline on the sagittal image, which is not the vermis Fig. ), indicating severe CVH Fig. 34 Comparison case of olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia. In a 4 month old, a 3 T MRI showed a prominent SAS (*) below the vermis (+), fourth ventricular enlargement, an obtuse posterior angle (fastigium) of the fourth ventricle (arrows) on sagittal T2WI MRI (left), and cystic cerebellar hemispheres (−). The inferior vermis is small on coronal T2WI (left middle), while the superior segment is hypoplastic on axial T1WIs (right two images).
19 A 31-year-old patient with dizziness; a 3 T MRI axial postcontrast FS SET1WI was negative, with faint left VA enhancement (curved arrows). Note CN7 enhancement (dotted arrows) Fig. 5 T MRI axial postcontrast FS SET1WI showed mild right VA enhancement (curved arrows) definitively proved. Interestingly, many of these patients may also have VA enhancement on the opposite side. 30). 1 Vestibular Aqueduct Enhancement Fig. 21 A 55-year-old patient with a negative 3 T MRI for dizziness. 5-mm thickness postcontrast FS spoiled GET1WI (T1FFE, left) and on a postcontrast 3D TOF MRA source image (also a gradient echo 53 image, right), there is right VA enhancement (curved arrows).
5 Cranial Nerve VII: Normal Contrast Enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cranial nerve VII (CN7) may have normal contrast enhancement in several locations. This is important to be aware of because MRI studies of the internal auditory canal (IAC) are quite common. , schwannoma or meningioma). Thus, the following descriptions of normal and abnormal regions of enhancement refer to contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed spin echo T1WI (FS T1WI). To understand the normal pattern of enhancement of the facial nerve, a brief review of the nerve’s course is necessary.