By Hans-Walter Rix (auth.), C. S. Kochanek, J. N. Hewitt (eds.)

EDWIN TURNER AND RACHEL WEBSTER Co-Chairs, clinical Organizing Committee lAU Symposium 173, Astrophysical purposes of Gravitational Lenses, was once held in Melbourne, Australia from July 9-14, 1995. The Symposium used to be backed via lAU Commissions forty seven and forty. With the invention through Walsh and collaborators of the 1st example of a gravitational lens, the multiply imaged quasar 0957+561, the world of grav­ itational lensing moved from speculative concept to a big astrophysical device. considering that that point, there were common, nearly biennial in­ ternational conferences either in Europe and in North the US, that have in particular focussed on gravitational lensing. in this get together, with the blessing of the l. a. U, the assembly used to be held on the collage of Melbourne in Australia. It used to be the 1st overseas astronomical assembly to be held on the college of Melbourne, and desire­ totally has given the astronomical neighborhood a few enthusiasm for hiking half-way around the globe to Australia to debate their most modern work.

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Extra resources for Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing: Proceedings of the 173rd Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Held in Melbourne, Australia, 9–14 JULY, 1995

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On the other hand the percentage polarizations of the two images show clear variations. The 15GHz polarization light curves are shown in Figure 2. 4GHz results show similar trends with the percentage polarizations of both the A and B images increasing with time. 2%. Moreover, systematic flux density calibration errors cancel. Hence percentage polarization is a much more robust parameter to use in a time delay determination. In Figure 3 we show the 15GHz percentage polarization light curve for the control source 3C119.

Chi-Squared Test. Averaged IFs, 15 GHz o N ...... Lag in Days Figure 4. The Normalized X2 as a function of time lag between the A and B polarization light curves. THE VLA LIGHT CURVES OF 0957+561, 1979-1994 D. B. HAARSMA, J. N. HEWITT AND B. F. BURKE Massachusetts Institute of Technology AND J. LEHAR Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Abstract. The gravitational lens 0957+561 has been monitored by our group for 16 years, using the VLA at 5 GHz. Since our last report in 1992, both images have returned to their quiescent flux levels, and the A image has brightened again.

I admit, however, that the value of Ho from type Ia SNe is still controversial. Branch and collaborators (Nugent et al. 1995) claim that it is difficult to reconcile the high Ho with current models of SNeIa for the amount of radioactive 56Ni. 34 MASATAKA FUKUGITA Ho I I SNelI-EPM l BCG I ? -LCS I l TF l SBF I PNLF I I I I I I I J QePheid 73±10 67± 9 80±lO 80±10 80±lO I G~ ~ I SN ring I SNla. cahbr. LMC Local calibr. Leo I Virgo Coma beyond Figure 2. The distance ladder that leads to Ho = 70 - 80km S-1 Mpc- 1 .

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