By William Hohl
Delivering a superior advent to meeting language and embedded platforms, ARM meeting Language: basics and Techniques, Second Edition keeps to help the preferred ARM7TDMI, but in addition addresses the newest architectures from ARM, together with Cortex™-A, Cortex-R, and Cortex-M processors―all of that have a bit of varied guideline units, programmer’s types, and exception dealing with.
Featuring 3 brand-new chapters, a brand new appendix, and multiplied insurance of the ARM7™, this edition:
- Discusses IEEE 754 floating-point mathematics and explains the right way to software with the IEEE normal notation
- Contains step by step instructions for using Keil™ MDK-ARM and Texas tools (TI) Code Composer Studio™
- Provides a source for use along various evaluate modules, akin to TI’s Tiva Launchpad, STMicroelectronics’ iNemo and Discovery, and NXP Semiconductors’ Xplorer boards
Written via skilled ARM processor designers, ARM meeting Language: basics and strategies, moment variation covers the themes necessary to writing significant meeting courses, making it a terrific textbook reference.
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Extra resources for ARM Assembly Language: Fundamentals and Techniques
When you say 0x6E, the machine sees 0x6E, and that’s about it. This could be a character (a lowercase “n”), the number 110 in base ten, or even a fractional value! We’re going to come back to this idea over and over—computers have to be told how to treat all types of data. The programmer is ultimately responsible for interpreting the results that a processor provides and making it clear in the code. In these next three sections, we’ll examine ways to represent integer numbers, floating-point numbers, and characters, and then see another way to represent fractions in Chapter 7.
The processor contained no microcode. One of the factors that complicated processor design was the use of microcode, which was a type of “software” or commands within a processor that controlled the way data moved internally. A simple instruction like MUL (multiply) could consist of dozens of lines of microcode to make the processor fetch data from registers, move this data through adders and logic, and then finally move the product into the correct register or memory location. This type of design allowed fairly complicated instructions to be created—a VAX instruction called POLY, for example, would compute the value of an nth-degree polynomial for an argument x, given the location of the coefficients in memory and a degree n.
These floating-point numbers consist of an exponent, a fraction, a sign bit, and a bias. f × 2e−b where s is the sign bit, and f is the fraction made up of the lower 23 bits of the format. 25, and so on. To ensure all exponents are positive numbers, a bias b is added to the exponent e. For single-precision numbers, the exponent bias is 127. 4 × 10+38! Note that this is only the positive range; the negative range is congruent. The amazing range is a trade-off, actually. Floating-point numbers trade accuracy for range, since the delta between representable numbers gets larger as the exponent gets larger.