By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first finished archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
 
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the reduce Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impression at the improvement of the southeastern usa, particularly in the course of the ancient interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is restricted to what we will examine from their descendants and from archaeological and ancient resources.
 
Combining historic files and archaeological examine on all recognized decrease Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has adequately pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and mentioned in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological range and version in the decrease Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The booklet is a research of archaeological equipment since it analyzes the temporal and geographic edition inside a unmarried archaeological part and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's learn segregates the adaptation among decrease Creek Indian cities via a local and direct ancient method. for this reason, he's in a position to parent the original adjustments among person Creek Indian towns. 
 
Foster argues that the learn of Creek Indian historical past will be on the point of cities rather than archaeological levels and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the ancient interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.
  

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Additional info for Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836

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European demand for the skins of deer created a market in the southeastern United States during the eighteenth century. That market, it is argued, drastically altered the society, economy, and environment of the Creek Indians (Braund 1993; Foster and Cohen 2005). Along with those changes, the use of deer and deer products probably changed, and these changes are visible in the archaeological record as will be seen in Chapter 7. There is evidence that deer hunting changed throughout the eighteenth century.

Documented changes in the faunal assemblage of archaeological deposits have been documented at Upper Creek sites (Pavao-Zuckerman 2000) and will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7. 22 / Foster SETTLEMENT A Creek town, or talwa, was the normal political unit for the majority of Creek Indians during the eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries (Harper 1998:313– 314; Piker 2003, 2004:6–8, 29). Therefore, the town and its identi¤cation are signi¤cant to the political history of the Maskókî people.

The name of the Upper Creek town of Tallo-wau mu-chos-see means “new town” but was formerly called Took-au-batchee tal-lau-has-see (Tukabatchee Old Town) and implies that this “new town” was the former location of Tukabatchee. Recent studies by Douglas Hurt (2000), Karen Booker et al. (1992), and Patricia Wickman (1999:57, 74–78, 158) may begin to address these issues of naming conventions. Last, most researchers are not really interested in the location of places with the same name. They are interested in the people who lived at that location.

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