By Andrew Hayes

"This is a advisor to the archaeology of the British Isles, from the Ice Age to the medieval interval. starting with an advent to the tools and strategies of contemporary archaeology, the writer strikes directly to hide the archaeology of the British Isles, facing such questions as: while the British Isles have been first inhabited; how the good Neolithic monuments have been deliberate and equipped; and the effect of the Roman Conquest. The advisor is done through an in depth gazetteer of 468 websites that may be visited."

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Humans had but two choices—to follow the retreating herds north and try to maintain the old ways, or to grasp the opportunities offered by a Brave New World. To survive required adaptability above all else. The potential supply of fresh meat was sharply reduced as woodland animals do not live together in large herds, but are found dispersed over a wide area. Yet to compensate, a warmer Britain now offered a greater range of food plants. 5 tonne (½ ton) of hazel nuts per hectare and 50 tonnes (49 tons) of edible bracken roots per square kilometre (247 acres), to say nothing of numerous berries, fungi and other foods.

Others point out that the expertise demonstrated by the miners would seem to imply that they were specialists, not casual labourers. 28 (Above) Mining Neolithic-style, galleries excavated for flint extraction at the bottom of a shaft at Grimes Graves (Norfolk; 203). ) Good quality flint is largely absent from the north and west of the British Isles. In these regions polished stone axes were made instead, from fine-grained igneous rocks that could also be polished to take a sharp cutting edge. Geologists have been able to pin-point many of the centres of axe production by using a microscope to examine under polarized light thin slices cut from axes.

This type of fracture, known as a ‘conchoidal fracture’, is different from most naturally produced fractures, such as the ‘pot lid’ pattern caused by frost. Flints worked by man are therefore usually easy to Out of Africa 19 distinguish from natural artefacts which lack the distinctive conchoidal fracture. Until recently attributing the exact uses to which tools were put was less easy, little more than a guessing game designed to tax the ingenuity of archaeologists. Fortunately, technology has now provided some solutions.

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