By James C. Daly, Denis P. Galipeau
Built-in circuits (ICs) don't consistently paintings the 1st time. many stuff can and do get it wrong in analog circuit designs. there are many universal mistakes that frequently require expensive chip remodel and refabrication, all of which might be refrained from whilst designers are conscious of the pitfalls. to gain luck, IC designers want a entire toolbox-a toolbox stuffed not just with a fantastic historical past in electronics, layout options and research abilities, but in addition with the main worthy instrument of all: event.
Analog BiCMOS layout deals IC layout engineers the educational resembling a long time of sensible event. Culled from the careers of working towards engineers, it provides the simplest equipment and the pitfalls most often encountered within the layout of biCMOS built-in circuits. obtainable to a person who has taken a direction in electronics, this booklet covers the elemental layout of bandgap voltage references, present mirrors, amplifiers, and comparators. It stories universal layout error usually missed and provides layout strategies used to therapy these problems.
With its entire assurance of easy circuit development blocks, complete info of universal layout pitfalls, and a compendium of layout and structure difficulties and ideas, Analog BiCMOS layout is the ideal reference for IC designers and engineers, fledgling and skilled alike. learn it to enhance your historical past, browse it for ideas on keeping off pitfalls, and for those who run right into a challenge, use it to discover a solution.
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Extra info for Analog BiCMOS Design: Practices and Pitfalls
The development of the third generation of SPICE FET models is currently underway. Modeling of modern MOS transistors with small feature sizes tends to be empirical rather than based on device physics. 78 was accurate. SPICE level one model for MOS transistors is accurate for large feature-size devices. There are two distinct regions of operation. The ohmic or linear region occurs for low values of drain to source voltage. The second region is called the constant current or saturation region. It occurs at higher values of drain to source voltage.
Current mirrors are used almost exclusively for this purpose in microelectronics. Current sources oﬀer the advantages of smaller size, higher accuracy and can be designed to provide temperature coeﬃcients of current as needed. However, resistors can and do serve well as current sources in some instances. Let us ﬁrst consider the characteristics of an ideal DC current source as provided in circuit simulators such as SPICE. r Constant current of any value is provided at all times. r Inﬁnite output impedance means there is no change in the source current value due to changes in the output node voltage.
This forward biases the base-emitter junction, turning the transistor on. Assuming an avalanche multiplication mechanism, we can derive a relationship between BVCBO and BVCEO . 68) n Since the avalanche multiplication process increases the collector current by a factor of M IC = −M αF IE hF E = IC M αF = IB 1 − M αF At breakdown, M = 1/αF and the current gain hF E goes to inﬁnity. 69) BVCEO can be substantially less than BVCBO . n is between 2 and 4 in silicon. If hF E = 100 and n = 3, BVCEO is approximately one ﬁfth of BVCBO .