By James C. Lin

This complete and topical quantity offers a few major advances on many fronts during this zone of study, really emphasizing present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields.

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The depth of the dipole was measured by ultrasound and the volume conductor was described as a homogeneous half-space. The strength of the dipole turned out to be dependent on the gestational age. In case of cardiac hypertrophy in the fetus, the dipole was clearly enlarged. Consequently, the inverse solution can be used to diagnose prenatal hypertrophy. In the next sections, simulations are discussed that were carried out at the University of Twente [Stinstra and Peters, 2002]. 1. Simulations of MCGs of Fetuses in Weeks 20 to 30 of Gestation The fetal heart is represented by a current dipole situated in the center of the fetal heart.

The number of complexes available for averaging is constrained by the time elapsed between fetal movements. 7. THE FORWARD PROBLEM In normal patients, the P-wave is about ten times smaller than the R-peak. , 2002]. The reason for this enhancement in fetuses with a complete heart block is probably atrial hypertrophy, as the atria often have to pump blood into a contracted ventricle. The same effect is observed for atrial flutter. Unfortunately, at this moment only information based on the duration of various time intervals obtained from fetal MCGs can be used for diagnostic purposes.

2000b ], who measured both the fetal ECG and MCG in a case that the layer of vernix could not play a role. They performed measurements in weeks 28 and 31 of gestation on a fetus diagnosed with ectopia Fetal Magnetocardiography 27 Table 2. , 1996. cordis, a rare condition in which the heart is situated outside the fetal body. They reported fetal ECGs with large amplitudes and a vectorcardiogram that was not a straight line. 1. The Electrical Conductivity in the Volume Conductor The highest conductivity in the abdominal volume is found in the amniotic fluid and the lowest in the vernix caseosa.

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