By James C. Lin
The target of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in dwelling platforms remains kind of like prior volumes: so as to add a couple of major advances during this sector of study to medical literature.
In normal, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic platforms is frequency-dependent. in addition, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very diversified from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a different emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. each one bankruptcy includes a entire presentation of an issue of present curiosity and starting to be significance.
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16A. The surface potential and the magnetic ﬁeld strength perpendicular to the abdominal surface as well as the current distribution within the volume conductor are calculated by means of the boundary element method. In Fig. 16B, the current density distribution in a vertical cross-section through the abdomen is depicted, showing that most currents are conﬁned to the fetus and amniotic ﬂuid. The current density in the maternal abdomen is 32 Maria J. Peters et al. A B z-axis Fat Remainder maternal abdomen Amniotic fluid Fetus x-axis y-axis Colorscale Am−2/Am 0 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 16.
Perinat. Med. 2(3):214– 216. , Hatzmann W. , 2002, Heart rate variability in growth retarded fetuses as determined by fetal magnetocardiography, in: Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Biomagnetism, H. Nowak, J. Haueisen, F. Gieszler and R. , VDE Verlag GMBH, Berlin, pp. 633–635. Leeuwen P. , Gr¨onemeyer D. , 1999a , Fetal heart rate variability and complexity in the course of pregnancy, Early Hum. , 54: 259–269. Leeuwen P. , Trowitzsch E. , 1999b , Magnetocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia, Brit.
The input coil is a small coil that is positioned on top of the SQUID. The superconducting current in this coil generates a magnetic ﬂux, which in turn is linear proportional to the superconducting current. This magnetic ﬂux, being linearly proportional to the applied magnetic ﬂux, is inductively coupled into the SQUID. The conﬁguration given in Fig. 12 is a ﬁrst-order gradiometer. The pick-up coil consists of two coils at a certain distance wound in opposite directions. In case this gradiometer is exposed to a uniform magnetic ﬁeld, the net ﬂux coupled into both coils of the ﬂux transformer is zero.