By Luciano Lavagno, Grant Martin, Bran V. Selic
The complexity of such a lot real-time and embedded structures frequently exceeds that of alternative varieties of structures considering that, as well as the standard spectrum of difficulties inherent in software program, they should care for the complexities of the actual global. That world―as the proverbial Mr. Murphy tells us―is an unpredictable and sometimes unfriendly position. as a result, there's a very robust motivation to enquire and follow complex layout tools and applied sciences which may simplify and enhance the reliability of real-time software program layout and implementation. therefore, from the 1st models of UML issued within the mid 1990’s, designers of embedded and real-time structures have taken to UML with vigor and exuberance. even though, the dream of a whole, model-driven layout move from specification via automatic, optimised code iteration, has been tricky to understand with out a few key advancements in UML semantics and syntax, in particular specific to the real-time structures challenge. With the improvements in UML which have been proposed and are close to standardisation with UML 2. zero, a lot of those advancements were made. within the Spring of 2003, adoption of a formalised UML 2. zero specification through the contributors of the article administration team (OMG) turns out very shut. it's for this reason very acceptable to check the prestige of UML as a suite of notations for embedded real-time structures - either the cutting-edge and top practices accomplished as much as this time with UML of prior generations - and the place the alterations embodied within the 2.
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Additional info for Academic-Uml For Real Design Of Embedded Real-Time Systems
16 Chapter 1  Object Management Group, Model Driven Architecture (MDA), OMG document ormsc/2001-07-01, Needham MA, 2001. 5, OMG document formal/2003-03-01, Needham MA, 2003.  G. Booch , J. Rumbaugh, and I. , Reading MA, 1999.  J. Rumbaugh, I. Jacobson, and G. , Reading MA, 1999. 0, OMG document formal/02-04-01, Needham MA, 2002.  Object Management Group, Software Process Engineering Metamodel (SPEM), OMG document formal/02-11-14, Needham MA, 2002.  Object Management Group, UML Profile for Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), OMG document ptc/02-02-02, Needham MA, 2002.
5, September 2002). They are described in terms of states and transitions where a state is attached to a given action (ActionState) or a sub-activity (SubactivityState) representing nested activities that ultimately resolve to individual actions. Action states are attached to atomic actions: it is left only when the action is completed. Action states have some duration corresponding to the processing of the action. As they are built from a set of state actions (or other sub-activity states), sub-activity states have also some duration.
In this way, they may pre-empt each other depending on their priority. If an active object is handling an event it cannot be pre-empted to manage a new incoming event even if this one has higher priority. However, if another active object is receiving an event and the flow of control of the active object has higher priority than the flow of control of the previous running active object, it will pre-empt this latter in order to manage the incoming event. In the UML, it is possible for more than one transition to fire at the same time.