By John F. Hoffecker

For the 1st time in recent times, we've a synthesis of the most recent pondering and discoveries through a more youthful student with an authoritative clutch of the topic. This e-book is a vital contribution to the final literature of human prehistory, distinct for its finished assurance of the circumpolar regions.—Brian Fagan, writer of The lengthy summer time: How weather replaced Civilization

"A uniquely authoritative, hugely readable, and well-illustrated account of the way stone-age humans controlled to colonize the a ways North."—Richard G. Klein, Stanford University

Early people didn't easily go with the flow northward from their African origins as their skills to deal with cooler climates advanced. The preliminary payment of locations like Europe and northerly Asia, in addition to the later flow into the Arctic and the Americas, really happened in quite fast bursts of growth. A Prehistory of the North is the 1st full-length learn to inform the advanced tale, spanning nearly million years, of the way people inhabited a few of the coldest areas on earth.

In an account wealthy with illustrations, John Hoffecker lines the historical past of anatomical variations, nutrition ameliorations, and technological advancements, similar to garments and guard, which allowed people the continuing skill to push the bounds in their habitation. The booklet concludes by means of exhibiting how within the previous few thousand years, peoples residing within the circumpolar zone—with the exception of western and relevant Siberia—developed a thriving maritime economy.

Written in nontechnical language, A Prehistory of the North presents compelling new insights and useful details for execs and scholars.

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Aitken, “Chronometric Techniques for the Middle Pleistocene,” in The Earliest Occupation of Europe, ed. W. Roebroeks and T. van Kolfschoten, pp. 269 –277 (Leiden: University of Leiden, 1995); A. A. Velichko, “Loess-Paleosol Formation on the Russian Plain,” Quaternary International 7/8 (1990): 103 –114. Figure B1. Temperature curve based on fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen isotopes from a deep-sea sediment core. b. N. J. Shackleton and N. D. Opdyke, “Oxygen Isotope and Paleomagnetic Stratigraphy of Equatorial Pacific Core V28-238: Temperatures and Ice Volumes on a 103 and 106 Year Scale,” Quaternary Research 3 (1973): 39 –55; Ronald Singer, Bruce G.

One of them—named the “Gran Dolina”—is filled with more than 50 ft (16 m) of pebbles, sand, silt, and clay deposited primarily by running water. 12 The human remains comprise eighty-five fragments of bone and teeth, representing parts of both the cranial and the postcranial skeletons of at least six individuals. They exhibit some anatomical features that align them with Homo erectus of Africa and Asia, and even with modern humans (Homo sapiens), but set them apart from the later European hominids.

The lower spine became curved and the pelvis became shorter and wider. The position of the skull shifted to rest vertically above the trunk. The lower limbs became longer; the surface areas for the joints became larger. 23 Much speculation and debate have surrounded the origin of bipedalism, although there is consensus that it was tied to the expansion of open habitat toward the end of the Miocene. As the distribution and density of trees declined, hominoid food sources probably became more widely dispersed, and some of the late Miocene apes could have been forced to spend more time on the ground.

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