By Eric H. Cline
In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized purely because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did lots of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic climate and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, unexpectedly ceased to exist, besides writing structures, expertise, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples on my own couldn't have prompted such common breakdown. How did it happen?
In this significant new account of the explanations of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip was once led to via a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and rebel to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign exchange routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the past due Bronze Age and indicates that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.
A compelling mixture of narrative and the newest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new mild at the advanced ties that gave upward thrust to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age—and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.
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Additional info for 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed
Was the battle with the Hyksos? We do not know for certain; however, it is possible that Apophis and Seknenre fought each other, whether or not it was over hippopotami. We also have an inscription left to us by the pharaoh Kamose, last king of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. At the time, Kamose was Of Arms and the Man • • • 17 ruling from his home in Thebes, in Upper Egypt. . . . I passed the night in my ship, my heart happy; and when day dawned I was upon him as if it were a hawk. When breakfast time came, I overthrew him having destroyed his walls and slaughtered his people, and made his wife descend to the riverbank.
It looked and felt like an ancient sword, an identification that was confirmed when it was cleaned up in the local museum by the resident archaeologists. However, it wasn’t a typical Hittite sword but rather was a type not seen previously in the region. In addition, it had an inscription incised into the blade. It initially proved easier to read the inscription than to identify the make of the sword, and so the translation was done first. A an-nu-tim a-na DIskur be-li-su u-se-li. ”50 The inscription refers to the so-called Assuwa Rebellion, which the Hittite king Tudhaliya I/II put down in approximately 1430 BC (he is referred to as “I/II” because we are not certain whether he was the first or the second king with that name).
He won the battle at Megiddo and took prisoner hundreds of German and Turkish soldiers, without any loss of life except for a few of his horses. He later admitted that he had read James Breasted’s English translation of Thutmose III’s account, leading Allenby to decide to replicate history. 44 The Mitannian kingdom kept growing and assimilating other nearby areas, such as the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat. Consequently, it was known by several names, depending upon the time period and who was writing or talking about it.